[dhjpgjpapd; ciufs;

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2015.04.23 Mk; jpfjp [dhjpgjp ikj;upghy rpwpNrd ehl;L kf;fSf;F Mw;wpa ciu

 

ehd; [dhjpgjpahfg; gjtpNaw;W 100 ehl;fs; epiwtilfpd;w ,e;j re;ju;g;gj;jpy; cq;fshy; epakpf;fg;gl;l cq;fspd; Kjd;ik Copad; vd;wtifapy; cq;fSf;F ciuahw;WtJ nghUj;jkhdJ vd ehd; epidf;fpNwd;. fle;j [dtup 08 Mk; jpfjp eilngw;w [dhjpgjpj; Nju;jypd;NghJ ntspaplg;gl;l ngWNgWfspd; mbg;gilapy; [dtup 09 Mk; jpfjp ,e;ehl;bd; mur jiytuhf ,d;Nwy; [dhjpgjpahf gjtpg;gpukhzk; nra;Ak; tha;g;G cq;fshy; vdf;F toq;fg;gl;lJ.

md;wpypUe;J ,d;Wtiu fope;j 100 ehs; fhytiuaiwapy; Fwpg;ghf ,e;ehl;bd; nghUshjhuk; njhlu;ghf murpay;> mgptpUj;jp> ru;tNjr njhlu;Gfs; Mfpa ,t;tidj;ijAk; ftdj;jpy; vLj;Jf;nfhs;fpd;wNghJ ehq;fs; Gjpa muR vd;wtifapy; Gjpa eltbf;iffs; gytw;iw vLj;Js;Nshk; vd;gijf; Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;.

[dtup 08 Mk; jpfjp ,e;ehl;bd; kf;fs; thf;Ffisg; gad;gLj;jp kpfj;njspthf jkJ [dehaf cupikapy; xU khw;wj;ijAk; Gul;rpiaAk; Vw;gLj;jpAs;sdu; vd ehd; fUJfpNwd;. mt;thW Vw;gLj;jpa khw;wKk; Gul;rpAk; fpilj;j Rje;jpuk; kw;Wk; [dehaf gad;ghl;il eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjw;F mijrhu;e;jpUj;jy; Nghd;w ,t;tplaq;fis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L fle;j %d;Wkhj fhyg;gFjpapy; nrayhw;Wfpd;wNghJ ehl;by; xU rpyupd; elj;ijfs;> xU rpyupd; murpay; KbTfs; kw;Wk; nraw;ghLfs; njhlu;ghf ftdk; nrYj;Jfpd;wNghJ tuyhw;wpy; cyfj;jpy; xU rpy ehLfspy; Gul;rp ,lk;ngw;w re;ju;g;gq;fspy;; mg;Gul;rpapd; gpd;du; Vw;gl;l tpisTfs;jhd; vd; Qhgfj;jpw;F tUfpd;wJ.

ngUk;ghYk; Gul;rpapd; gpd;du; ehLfspy; kPs;Gul;rpnahd;W Vw;gLjy; nghJthd epiyahFk; vd;gij ehk; mwpNthk;. mNjNghd;Wjhd; vdJ Qhgfj;jpy; cs;sgb 1990> 1991 Nghd;w fhyg;gFjpfisf; ftdj;jpy; vLj;Jf;nfhs;fpd;wNghJ Nrhtpaj; Njrj;jpd; tPo;r;rp> fpof;F INuhg;ghtpy; nfhkpA+dp];l; muRfs; tPo;r;rpaile;jik vd;gtw;wpD}lhf Fwpg;ghf murpay; jPtputhjj;ij Nehf;fpr; nrd;Ws;s mt;thl;rpapy; khw;wk; Vw;gl;lNghJ kf;fSf;Ff;fpilj;j Rje;jpuj;ijAk; [dehafj;ijAk; mDgtpf;fpd;wNghJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhytiuaiwtiuf;Fs;; rpy gpur;rpidfSk; neUf;fbfSk; Njhd;wpd vd;gJ vd; Qhgfj;jpy; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. mJ khj;jpuky;y vgpu`hk; ypq;fd; Nghd;w kdpj Neak; nfhz;l jiytu; xUtu; mnkupf;fhit Ml;rp nra;j fhyj;ij epidTgLj;Jfpd;wNghJ mbikj;jisia KbTWj;Jtjw;fhf rl;lq;fis ,aw;wp rl;lq;fis eilKiwg;gLj;jpajd; gpd;du; rpwpJ fhyj;jpd; gpd;du; mbikfNs rpy re;ju;g;gq;fspy; mbikj;jisNa ey;yJ vd;W nrhy;ypapUe;jdu;. Vnddpy; Rje;jpuj;ij mDgtpj;j Rarf;jpAld; xU kdpjdhf cUthtjw;F ,Uf;fpd;w cupikia tpl xUtupd; fPo; Nrit nra;J mbikahf tho;e;J jq;fsJ tho;ifia Kd;ndLg;gJ mt;thW fpilj;j Rje;jpuj;ijtpl ey;yJ vd rpy mbikfs; epidj;jdu;.

mjdhy; mbikj;jisia KbTWj;jp mij rl;lG+u;tkhf;fp mbikj;jisapypUe;J mnkupf;f kf;fis tpLtpj;jjd; gpd;dUk; $l rpwpJ fhyk; nrd;wjd; gpd;du; xU rpy mbikfs; mbik tho;T ey;yJ vd;W $wpapUe;jdu;. ,J jhd; khdpl rKjhaj;jpd; nghJthd epiy. vdNt ehk; ,e;j epiyiag; Gupe;J nfhs;s Ntz;;baJ kpfTk; mtrpakhdjhFk;.

,g;nghOJ rpyu; ,e;j 100 ehl;fspy; vd;d nra;jpUf;fpNwhk; vd;W Nfl;fpd;wdu;. 100 ehl;fspy; gy tplaq;fisr; nra;jpUf;fpNwhk;. mit ngWkjpahditfs; ngsjPfuPjpahf fz;ghu;itf;F Gyg;gLfpd;witfs; my;y.

[dtup 09 Mk; jpfjp ehd; [dhjpgjpahfg; gjtpg;gpukhzk; nra;fpd;wNghJ ekJ ehl;ilg;gw;wp ,Ue;j ru;tNjr epiyik cq;fs; Qhgfj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;. vk;khy; ru;tNjrk; gpupe;jJ. If;fpa ehLfs; mikg;G> kdpj cupikfs; Mizf;FO> ghJfhg;Gr;rig vd;gtw;wpy; Vw;gl;l epfo;Tfs; cq;fs; Qhgfj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;. Mdhy; vk;khy; gpuptile;j ru;tNjrk; [dtup 09 Mk; jpfjpapd; gpd;du; ,e;j murhq;fj;ij mjpfhuj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;LtUtjw;F ePq;fs; vd;kPJ itj;j ek;gpf;ifNa ru;tNjrKk; vd;kPJ ek;gpf;if itj;jpUe;jJ. ,d;W ,e;ehl;bd; Rje;jpuj;ij> [dehafj;ij> kdpj cupikia kw;Wk; mbg;gil cupikfis ,t;tur jiytu; cWjpg;gLj;;Jthu; vd;w ek;gpf;if mtu;fSf;F ,Ue;jJ.

fle;j fhyg;gFjpapy; ehd; rpy ehLfSf;F tp[ak; nra;jij ePq;fs; mwptPu;fs;. Kjyhtjhf vkJ maypy; cs;s vkJ el;;G ehl;Lf;Fr; nrd;Nwd;. mjd; gpd;du; nghJeytha jpd tpohTf;fhf gpupj;jhdpahTf;Fr; nrd;Nwd;. nghJeytha jpdj;ijf; nfhz;lhbaijg; Nghd;W mijtpl Kf;fpakhdjhf ,Ue;jJ. vkJ ehl;Lf;fhf gpupj;jhdpa gpujku;> vjpu;f;fl;rpj; jiytu;. gpupj;jhdpa ghJfhg;Gr; nrayhsu;> ntsp;ehl;L nrayhsu; kw;Wk; kfhuhzpahu; MfpNahiu re;jpj;jjd; %yk; ehd; gpupj;jhdpahit kl;Lk; ntw;wp nfhs;stpy;iy. INuhg;gpa xd;wpaj;ijNa ntw;wpnfhz;Ls;Nsd; vd ehd; epidf;fpNwd;.

mNjNghd;W ehd; rPdhTf;Fr; nrd;Nwd;. vkJ el;GehL vd;wtifapy; vkJ ehl;bd; mgptpUj;jpf;F ghupastpy; mDruiz toq;fpa> KjyPLfisr; nra;j rPdhTf;Fr; nrd;W vk;kpilNa ,w;iwtiu ,Ue;Jte;j el;;Gwit NkYk; NkYk; tsu;j;Jf;nfhs;s vd;dhy; Kbe;jJ. ehd; mjd; gpd;du; ghfp];jhDf;Fr; nrd;Nwd;. ghfp];jhd; vkf;F kpf neUq;fpa el;GehL. ,e;jpah> rPdh> ghfp];jhd;. gpupj;jhdpah Nghd;w ehLfSf;F Nkw;nfhz;l tp[ak; ru;tNjr uPjpahf KO cyfj;ijAk; ntw;wp nfhz;ljhf mikfpwJ vd ehd; ek;GfpNwd;. vk;kPJ itj;Js;s ek;gpf;ifAk; Fwpg;ghf Rje;jpuj;ijAk; [dehafj;ijAk; cWjpg;gLj;Jjy;> gpupj;jhdpa gpujku; Nltpl; nfkNuhd;> ,e;jpahtpd; gf;fj;jpy; eNue;jpu Nkhb mtu;fs; kw;Wk; ghfp];jhd; gpujku; eth]; rupg;> rPd [dhjpgjp rp [pd; gpq; mtu;fs; Mfpa ,t;tur jiyu;fs; vk;kPJ nfhz;Ls;s md;Gk; MjuTk; el;GwTk; kpfTk; tpupthdjhFk;.

jpUkjp = khNth gz;lhuehaf;f mk;ikahupd; fhyj;jpy; ru;tNjrk; vk;Kld; vt;tsT neUq;fpapUe;jJ vd;W $Wtjhdhy; vkJ mzpNruh ntspehl;Lf;nfhs;ifapy; vdJ murhq;fk; ,d;W njspthf mzpNruh ntspehl;Lf;nfhs;ifia eilKiwg;gLj;JfpwJ. midj;J ehLfSlDk; muRfSlDk; ru;tNjr mikg;GfSlDk; el;Gwit cWjpg;gLj;jpf;nfhs;Sjy; If;fpa ehLfs; mikg;gpd; nrayhsu; ehafk; ehd; [dhjpgjpahdTld; vdf;F ey;tho;j;Jf;$wpa Kiw vd; Qhgfj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ.

nrayhsu; ehafj;jpd; tpNrl gpujpepjpnahUtu; rkPgj;jpy; vkJ ehl;Lf;F te;jhu;. mNjNghd;W Nkiy Njrk; cs;spl;l gy ehLfspy; ,Ue;jk; Mrpa gpuhe;jpaj;jpd; ntsptptfhu mikr;ru;fSk; ,uh[je;jpu gpujpepjpfSk; ngUkstpy; ,k;%d;W khjq;fspy; vkJ ehl;Lf;Fte;J vd;id re;jpj;Js;sdu;. ,tu;fs; midtUk; vd;kPJ ngUk; ek;gpf;if itj;jpUf;fpd;wdu;.

mjdhy; ,e;j 100 ehl;fspy; ehk; ,d;W vd;d nra;jpUf;fpd;Nwhk;; vd;W Nfl;fpd;wtu;fSf;F Fwpg;ghf fle;j Ml;rpf;fhyj;jpy; Kwptile;jpUe;j ru;tNjr el;GuT> ek;gpf;if vd;gtw;iw kpfTk; tYthd Kiwapy; vdJ murhq;fk; vd;wtifapy; vdJ kf;fSf;fhf ntw;wpnfhs;s vd;dhy; Kbe;jJ vd;gij ehd; Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;. mt;thW ngw;Wf;nfhz;Ls;s ek;gpf;ifapy; vkf;F toq;Ffpd;w xj;Jiog;G ehl;bd; mgptpUj;jpf;F Fwpg;ghf ngsjPf tsq;fspd; mgptpUj;jpf;F ru;tNjr eltbf;iffSf;F toq;fpapUg;gij ehk; ngupJk; ghuhl;l Ntz;Lk;.

,g;nghOJ ,e;j epiyikapy; cq;fSf;Fj;njupAk; ePq;fs; Vd; vd;id ,g;gjtpapy; mku;j;jpdPu;fs; vd;W vdJ Qhgfj;jpy; tUfpwJ fle;j [dtup 08 Mk; jpfjpf;F Kd;du; nghJthf vkJ gpuNjrrig cWg;gpdu;fSld; fijf;fpd;wNghJ rj;jk; NghLthu;fs;. njhiyNgrpapy; NgrNtz;lhk; nlg; nra;fpwhu;fs; vd;W nrhy;Ythu;fs;. mur mjpfhupfs; Rje;jpukhfg; Ngrtpy;iy. ,uhZtj;jpd;> nghyp]pd; fPo; kl;lj;jpy; ,Ue;j cj;jpNahfj;ju;fs; njhiyNgrpapy; Rje;jpukhff; fijf;ftpy;iy. ,tu;fs; midtUf;Fk; njhiyNgrpapy; fijg;gjw;F Rje;jpuk; ,Uf;f tpy;iy.

,k;%d;W khj fhyg;gFjpapy; me;j Rje;jpuk; tYtile;Js;sJ. mNjNghd;W Clf Rje;jpuk;. vd;Dila Qhgfj;jpw;F tUfpwJ. [dtup 08 Mk; jpfjpf;F Kd;du; Clf mjpfhupfSf;Fk; Clf epWtdq;fspd; nra;jpg;gzpg;ghsu;fs; kw;Wk; nra;jp Mrpupau;fs; MfpNahhplk; murpay; mjpfhuk; cs;stu;fs; vt;thW fijj;jhu;fs; vd;gJ vdf;F Qhgfk; ,Uf;fpwJ. mjpy; epu;g;ge;jq;fs;> mr;RWj;jy;fs;> cstpay; uPjpahd mYj;jq;fs; ,Ue;jd. ,d;W Clfk; mit vy;yhtw;wpypUe;Jk; tpLjiy ngw;wpUf;fpwJ. ehk; ,e;j Rje;jpuj;ij toq;fpapUf;fpNwhk;. ehk; ,q;F Ngrg;gLfpd;w mehfhPfkhd Rje;jpuj;ij cUthf;fpf;nfhs;sg; NghfpNwhkh. rpy Clf epWtdq;fs; ele;Jnfhs;fpd;w Kiwiag;ghu;f;fpd;wNghJ ehd; Mr;rupag;ghLfpNwd;. fpilj;Js;s ,e;j Rje;jpuj;ijj; jtwhfg;gad;gLj;Jfpd;wu;. mjdhy; kf;fspd; [dehaf cupikiaAk; Clf Rje;jpuj;ijAk; ehk; cWjpg;gLj;jpNdhk;.

kWGwk; ePjpkd;wk;> cq;fSf;Fj; njupAk; rl;lj;jpd; Mjpf;fk; ve;jsTf;F Kwptile;jpUe;jJ vd;gJ. ePjpkd;wj;jpd; kPJ ek;gpf;if ,Ue;jhYk; yQ;r Coy; Mizf;FO cau; ePjpkd;wk; Mfpa midj;Jk; mur Ml;rpahsupd; njhiyNgrp miog;Gf;F fPo;gbe;J ,Ue;jd. cq;fSf;Fj; njupAk; gy;NtWtpjkhd Fw;wr; nray;fSld; njhlu;Gilatu;fSf;F vg;gb mf;fhyj;jpy; tpLjiy fpilj;jJ vd;gJ. tof;Fj; jPu;g;Gfs; vt;thW fpilj;jd vd;gJ rl;l kh mjpgUf;F Rje;jpuk; ,Ue;jjh> rl;l kh mjpguhf jkJ flikfisr; nra;tjw;F Fwpg;ghf gpujk ePjpauriu epakpj;jy;> ,uhZtj;jsgjpia epakpj;jy; vd;gtw;iw me;j gpuptpy; ,Uf;fpd;w midtUk; mwpthu;fs;. cq;fSf;Fj; njupAk; %g;Gupikf;F mikthf mt;tidj;J jifikfisAk; nfhz;ltu;fisj; jhd; mg;gjtpapy; ehd; epakpj;Js;Nsd;. mjdhy; ehk;; rl;lj;jpd; Mjpf;fj;ijg; gyg;gLj;jpapUf;fpd;Nwhk;. Rje;jpuKk; rkhjhdKk; mjw;F kpfTk; mtrpakhdjhFk;. Njrpa ghJfhg;ig cWjpg;gLj;jpapUf;fpNwhk;.

ghJfhg;Gr; rigf;$l;lj;jpd;NghJ ehd; Kg;gilf;Fk; nghyp]hu; midtUf;Fk; Njrpa ghJfhg;G njhlu;ghf vdf;F Gjpa Ntiyj;jpl;lk; xd;W Ntz;Lk; vd mwpTWj;jy; toq;fpapUf;fpNwd;. ,w;iwtiu nra;jijtpl kpf ey;yKiwapy; mg;gzpfis Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wdu;. mjdhy; ehk; ePz;l gaznkhd;iw Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;bapUf;fpwJ. ,J mjw;fhd Muk;gk; khj;jpuk; jhd;. mNjNghd;W Fwpg;ghf ehd; cq;fSf;F ,d;Dk; xU tplaj;ijf; Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j 100 ehs; fhytiuaiuapy; [dhjpgjp vd;wtifapy; vdJ elj;ij njhlu;ghf rpyUf;F rpw;rpy tpku;rdq;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. rpyu; nrhy;Yfpwhu;fs; rf;jpapy;iynad;W rpyu; nrhy;Yfphu;fs; gytPdkhdtu; vd;W ,d;Dk; rpyu; nrhy;Yfpwhu;fs; xU jiytd; my;y vd;W. Mdhy; me;j midj;J tpku;rfu;fSf;Fk; vdJ md;ghd kf;fSf;Fk; ehd; nrhy;y Ntz;baJ vd;dntd;why; ,e;j 100 ehs; fhyg;gFjpapy; tiuaiwaw;w mjpfhuKs;s gjtpapd; mjpfhuj;ij ehd; gad;gLj;jtpy;iy vd;gijf;$w Ntz;Lk;. Vndd;why; ,e;j mjpfhuj;ijf; nfhLg;gjw;fhfj;jhd; ePq;fs; vd;id epakpj;jPu;fs;. mjw;fhfj;jhd; ehd; te;Njd;. epiwNtw;W mjpfhuk; nfhz;l [dhjpgjpf;Fs;s tiuaiwaw;w mjpfhuq;fis mfw;Wtjw;fhf te;Njd;. vdNt ,itgw;wp gy;NtW tpsf;fq;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. ehd; njspthf xU tplaj;ijf; $w Ntz;Lk;. vdJ Nju;jy; gpufldj;jpy; ehd; kpfj; njspthfr; nrhy;ypapUf;fpd;w tplak; vd;dntdpy; epiwNtw;W mjpfhuk; nfhz;l [dhjpgjpf;Fs;s tiuaiwaw;w mjpfhuq;fis ePf;FtjhFk;. ,g;nghOJ ,e;j tplaj;jpd;NghJ ehd; ve;jsTf;F nefpo;Tj;jd;ikAld; ,Uf;fpNwd; vd;W $Wtjhdhy; 1978 murpayikg;G mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l ehs; Kjy; ,e;ehl;by; = yq;fh Rje;juf;fl;rp epiwNtw;W mjpfhuk; nfhz;l [dhjpgjp Kiwf;F vjpuhfNt ,Ue;jJ. mjdhy; 94 Kjy; xt;nthU [dhjpgjpj; Nju;jypd;NghJk; Ntl;ghsu;fs; jkJ Nju;jy; gpufldj;jpy; epiwNtw;W mjpfhuk; nfhz;l [dhjpgjp Kiwapd; tiuaiwaw;w mjpfhuq;fis ePf;FNthk; vd;W mtu;fs; Fwpg;gpl;ldu;. mtu;fs; vtUf;Fk; mijr; nra;a Kbatpy;iy.

mNjNghd;Wjhd; 78 murpayikg;Gld; te;j tpUg;Gf;Fupa thf;FKiwf;F md;wpypUe;J = yq;fh Rje;jpuf; fl;rp vjpu;g;Gj; njuptpj;jJ. mg;nghOJ ,t;tpuz;Lf;Fk; ,lJrhup Kw;Nghf;F murpay; fl;rpfs; vjpu;g;Gj; njuptpj;jd. If;fpa Njrpa fl;rp Kjy; Kiwahf 1999 Mk; Mz;L mtu;fSila khehl;bd; NghJ ,jw;F vjpuhf xU gpNuuizia mq;fPfupj;jdu; vd ehd; epidf;fpNwd;. 1999 Kjy; If;fpa Njrpa fl;rp ,jw;F vjpu;g;Gj; njuptpj;jJ. ,J nghJkf;fs; kj;jpapy; Vw;gl;l xU fUj;jhlyhFk;. mtu;fSila murpay; mwpT Gyik> Qhdk;> rkNahrpjk;> Gupe;Jzu;T> mDgtk; vd;gtw;Wld; ,Ue;jJ. vdNt mijr; nra;ajjhd; Ntz;Lk;. ,J 19 MtJ jpUj;jk;.

,e;j Kiwapd; %yk; ,e;ehl;by; Rje;jpukhd [dehafj;ij ehfupfkhd rKjhankhd;iw cUthf;f> Vfhjpgj;jpathjpfs; cUthtijj; jLg;gjw;F mur mjpfhuk;> mur nrhj;Jf;fs;> ePjpkd;wk;> ghuhSkd;wk; Mfpa midj;ijAk; jkJ jdp mjpfhuj;jpw;Fs; itj;jpUf;f KbAk;. ,ij clNd khw;w Ntz;Lk;. fle;j %d;W khj fhyg;gFjpapy; cyfj; jiytu; ,t;tpjkhd mjpfhuk; ,Uf;fpd;w gjtpf;Fte;J jkJ ifapy; ,Uf;fpd;w ,e;jsT mjpfhuj;ij iftpLtjw;F nefpo;Tj;jd;ikAld; ,Ug;ghu;fs; vd;gij ehd; Nfs;tpg;gl;ljpy;iy.

mur rl;lkh mjpgh; cah; ePjp kd;wj;jpw;Fr; nrd;W vdJ mwpTWj;jy;fspd; gpufhuk; ,e;j mjpfhuq;fis ePf;Fk;gb nrhd;dhh;. vd;Dila jdpg;gl;l murpay; mikg;G njhlh;ghd MNyhrfh; cah; ePjp kd;wj;jpw;F nrd;W mjpfhuq;fis ePf;Fk;gb $wpdhh;. ehk; mJgw;wp murpay; jPHnthd;iw toq;fp ,Ue;Njhk;. cah; ePjpkd;w jPHg;G toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

me;j cah; ePjpkd;w jPHg;gpd; gpufhuk; ehk; eltbf;if vLf;f Ntz;bapUf;fpd;wJ. mjw;fg;ghy; ehk; nry;y KbahJ. mjdhy; ghuhSkd;wj;jpw;F ,e;j 19tJ jpUj;jj;ij rkHg;gpg;gjd; %yk; jw;nghOJ fle;j rpy jpdq;fspy; rpw;rpy ,ila+Wfs; Vw;gl;ld. ehd;> ghuhSkd;wj;ij gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;Jfpd;w md;ghd nfsut kf;fs; gpujpepjpfNs> mikr;rh;fNs cq;fsplk; kpf nfsutkhf Nfl;Lf;nfhs;fpNwd;. ,J cq;fSf;F fpilj;Js;s tuyhw;W Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j xU re;jHg;gkhFk;. ,jw;F fl;rpapd; thf;if gad;gLj;JtJ tuyhw;W uPjpahf cq;fSf;F kjpg;gspf;fpd;w xU tplakhFk;. kf;fspd; Rje;jpuk;> rdehafk;. ehfhPf r%fk;> xOf;fj;ij kjpf;fpd;w gzpTs;s xU ehL vd;gtw;iw fl;bnaOg;Gtjw;F mt;tidtUk; ,e;j 19tJ jpUj;jj;ij mq;fPfhpg;gjw;F jkJ thf;Ffisg; gad;gLj;Jthh;fs; vd ehd; ek;GfpNwd;. ehd; kpf nfsutkhf cq;fis Nfl;Lf;nfhs;fpNwd;. ,jw;fhf cq;fSila ngWkjpkpf;f thf;ifg; gad;gLj;jp ,e;j ehl;bd; Rje;jpuj;ijAk; rdehafj;ijAk; cWjpg;gLj;Jfpd;w gzpapd; gq;fhsu;fshf MFk;gb cq;fs; midtiuAk; Nfl;Lf;nfhs;fpNwd;.

19tJ jpUj;jj;jpw;F mNjNghd;W Njh;jy; Kiwia khw;WtJ vd;gJ New;W mikr;ruitf; $l;lj;jpy; rkh;g;gpf;fg;gl;l Gjpa NjHjy; Kiw njhlHghf jw;nghOJ eltbf;if vLf;fg;gLfpwJ. mij ghuhSkd;wj;jpw;F rkHg;gpj;J mq;fPfhpj;Jf;nfhs;s vjpHghHf;fg;gLfpwJ.

kf;fSf;F nfhLj;j thf;FWjpapd; gpufhuk; ,yQ;r Coy;fis tprhuhpg;gjw;F jw;nghOJ rdhjpgjp Mizf;FOnthd;W mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjd; gzpfs; jw;nghOJ ntw;wpfukhf eilngWfpwJ.

mj;Jld; ,dq;fSf;fpilapy; xw;Wik> rf tho;T el;GwT ekJ ehl;bd; ngsj;j. ,e;J> fpwp];jt kjq;fisg; Nghd;W ,dq;fs; vd;w tifapy; rpq;fs> jkpo;> K];ypk;> kNy> gwq;fpaH Mfpa midj;J kf;fs; kj;jpapYk; ey;ypzf;fk; xw;Wik> rNfhjuj;Jtk; vd;gtw;iw Vw;gLj;jp re;Njfk;> ek;gpf;ifapd;ik> mr;rk; vd;git ,y;yhky; tho;tjw;F cyfj;jpy; mgptpUj;jp mile;j ehLfs; rdehafj;ijAk; Rje;jpuj;ijAk; kpf caHthf mDgtpf;fpd;w ehLfs; ve;jsTf;F me;j ehLfspy; cs;Kfj;jpy; gy;NtW ,dq;fs;> gy;NtW kjq;fs;> gy;NtW nkhopfs; NgRfpd;w kf;fs; ,Uf;fpd;whh;fNsh mNjNghd;W ehq;fs; gd;kj rKjhaj;ij> gy;ypdq;fis gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;Jfpd;w rKjhakhFk;. ,it midj;jpYk; vkJ rpq;fs ngsj;j kf;fspd; tuyhw;W hPjpahd mbg;gilAld; me;j nfsutj;ijAk; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijAk; Vida midj;J kf;fSf;F rNfhjuj;Jtj;JlDk; el;GwTlDk; rf tho;TlDk; ePjpahd r%f Kiwnahd;wpy; re;NjfKk; mtek;gpf;ifAkpd;wp tho;tjw;Fhpa chpikia cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;F ehk; mwpe;Jnfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

,jw;fhf ehk; ey;ypzf;fj;jpw;fhf rdhjpgjp nrayzp xd;iw epakpj;Njhk;. ,dq;fSf;fpilapy; rf tho;itAk; ey;ypzf;fj;ijAk; cUthf;Ftjw;fhf ,J cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. jw;nghOJ me;j ey;ypzf;fj;jpw;fhd rdhjpgjp nrayzp kpf ntw;wpfukhf nray;gLfpwJ. ehk; mj;Jld; epd;Wtpltpy;iy Njrpa xw;Wik njhlHghf ey;ypzf;fk; njhlHghf nrayhw;Wtjw;F nrayfk; xd;iw ehk; Muk;gpj;Njhk;.

,e;j ehl;by; ,Uf;fpd;w cs;sf gpur;rpidia ehk; Ghpe;Jnfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,itfs; GiuNahb Kg;gJ Mz;Lfshf ele;j Aj;jj;jpd; tpisTfis ehk; kPz;Lk; Vw;gLj;Jtjw;F ,lkspf;fhky; nrayhw;w Ntz;Lk;. ,tw;iw nraw;gLj;Jfpd;wNghJ me;j midj;J kf;fspilNaAk; el;GwT ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; ehd; ftiyNahL nrhy;y Ntz;ba xU tplak; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. vkJ murpay; vjpuhspfs; ,izaj;jsq;fs; Clhf kw;Wk; xUrpy Clfq;fs; Clhf cz;ikaw;w gpur;rhuq;fisr; nra;J tlf;fpypUe;J ,uhZtk; mfw;wg;gl;bUg;gjhfTk; ,uhZtk; Fiwf;fg;gl;bUg;gjhfTk; rk;g+hpy; vy;hPhP<. gaq;futhjpfSf;F fhzpfs; nfhLf;fg;gl;bUg;gjhfTk; rpWghd;ikapduhd jkpo;> K];ypk; kf;fSf;F rpq;fs kf;fistpl mjpf chpikfs; toq;fg;gl;bUg;gjhfTk; $Wfpd;wdH. KOikahfNt ,f; fijfis jPtpu ,dthjpfs; gug;Gfpd;wdH. jaT nra;J ,e;jg; ngha; gpurhuq;fis cyf kf;fSf;F toq;f Ntz;lhk;.

ntspehLfspy; ,Uf;fpd;w ,yq;ifaHfis jtwhd Kiwapy; top elj;Jfpd;wdh;. Mdhy; ehk; kpfj; njspthf nrhy;y Ntz;ba xU tplak; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. Aj;jk; ,lk;ngw;w fhyj;jpy; ghJfhg;Gg; gil tlf;F fpof;fpy; khj;jpuky;y nfhOk;G efhpYk; jdpahh; fhzpfis jkJ gad;ghl;Lf;fhf vLj;jdh;. mg;gbahdhy; Muk;g chpikahsh;fSf;F mf;fhzpfis toq;FtJ jtwh? ghJfhg;G gilapdUf;F ve;jtpj jhf;fKk; Vw;ghlhj tifapy;> Njrpa ghJfhg;Gf;F ve;j gpur;rpidAk; Vw;glhj tifapy;> ghJfhg;G Kfhk;fs; ve;jtpjj;jpYk; eyptilahj tifapy; nfhOk;G Nfhl;il> rdhjpgjp khspif> myhp khspif Rw;Wtl;lj;jpy; vt;tsT jdpahh; fhzpfs; tPLfs; ghJfhg;G gphptpd; fPo; ,Ue;jd. mg;gbahdhy; mtw;iw ehk; Muk;g chpikahsUf;F nfhLf;ff; $lhjh? Mdhy; ,tw;iwg;gw;wp jtwhd gpurhuq;fis Kd;ndLf;fpwhh;fs;.

mjdhy; ehk; ,t;tidj;J gphpTfs; njhlHghf kpfj; njspthd nfhs;ifapy; ,Uf;fpd;Nwhk;. mJ khj;jpuky;y mur nrhj;Jf;fis kPs ngw;Wf;nfhs;fpd;w tpNrl rdhjpgjp nrayzp xd;W epakpf;fg;gl;bUf;fpd;wJ. ifkhw;wg;gl;l mur nrhj;Jf;fs; ntspehl;L tq;fp fzf;Ffspy; itg;gpy; ,lg;gl;l ,e;ehl;Lf;Fhpa gzk; ,tw;iw kPsg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhf tpNrl rdhjpgjp nrayzp xd;w mikf;fg;gl;bUf;fpd;wJ. mg;gzpfis ntw;wpfukhf Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F cs;@h; hPjpahfTk; rHtNjr hPjpahfTk; mjw;fhd xj;Jiog;G ngwg;gLfpd;wJ.

mjdhy; ,t;tidj;J gphpTfs; njhlHghfTk; ehk; kpfj; njspthf nraw;gLfpd;Nwhk; vd;gij ehd; nrhy;y Ntz;Lk;. ,g;nghOJ ghUq;fs; ekJ ehl;bd; mgptpUj;jpapd;NghJ ,e;ehl;Lf;F tUlhe;jk; 400 gpy;ypaDf;F Nkw;gl;l czT nghUl;fs; ntspehl;bypUe;J tUfpd;wd. mg;gbahdhy; ehk; jd;dpiwT mile;Js;Nshkh? ngsjPf tsq;fis mgptpUj;jp nra;tjpy; ghijfisAk; fl;blq;fis mikj;jhy; khj;jpuk; ,g;gpur;rpid jPHe;J tplhJ. cs;@H nghUshjhuj;ij gyg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. ekJ ehL vt;tsT mofhd tdg;Gkpf;f #oiyf; nfhz;Ls;s ehL cyfj;jpy; cd;djkhd ehL ekJ ehL.

,e;j ehl;by; ,Uf;fpd;w ,aw;if tsq;fs;> fhy epiy> vkf;F ngUk; MrPHthjkhFk;. 400 gpy;ypaDf;F Nkw;gl;l czTfis ntspehLfspy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L tuNtz;ba mtrpakpy;iy. mijg;gw;wpa njspthd nfhs;ifapy; ehk; ,Uf;fpd;Nwhk;. cs;@H tptrhak; tptrhapapd; nghUshjhuj;ijg; gyg;gLj;Jjy; Nghd;W mur CopaHfs;> njhopyhsh;fs;> Ntiy nra;fpd;w kf;fs;> jdpahh;Jiw ,t;tidj;ijAk; gyg;gLj;Jtjw;F chpa Ntiyj;jpl;lj;ij ehk; gbg;gbahf Kd;ndLg;Nghk;.

mjdhy; ,t;tidj;J eltbf;ifapd; NghJ ,t;tidj;J gphpTfisAk; ftdj;jpy; nfhz;L NjHjy; gpufldj;jpy; Fwpg;gpl;lijg;Nghd;W ,e;ehl;by; ey;yhl;rpia Vw;gLj;Jtjw;F vk;ik mHg;gzpj;Jf;nfhs;Nthk;.

ey;yhl;rpia Vw;gLj;Jtjd;%yk; Vw;gLfpd;w Rje;jpuj;ijAk; rdehafj;ijAk;gw;wp ehd; Kd;dh; Fwpg;gpl;lijg;Nghy jtwhd Kiwapy; mDgtpf;fhky; ehl;bd; vjpHfhyj;jpw;fhf ,d;W tho;fpd;w kf;fisg;Nghd;W ehis gpwf;fg;Nghfpd;w gps;isfSf;fhfTk; vkJ nghWg;Gf;fis ehk; epiwNtw;w Ntz;Lk;.

Coy;fisAk; NkhrbfisAk; Fiwg;gjw;fhf KOikahf xopj;J tpLtjw;fhf vLf;ff;$ba midj;J eltbf;iffisAk; vLg;Ngd;. ehd; ,w;iwtiu ,yQ;r Coy; Mizf;FOtpd; ve;jnthU mjpfhhpAlDk; njhiyNgrp miog;ig Nkw;nfhs;stpy;iy. vtUlDk; fijf;ftpy;iy> ePjpkd;wj;jpy; vtUlDk; ehd; jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; fijf;ftpy;iy. mJjhd; ey;yhl;rpapy; Njit. mur gphpT nghJ kf;fSf;F Kd;khjphpahf jpfo Ntz;Lk;.

rdhjpgjp nrayfj;jpw;F ehd; nry;fpd;wNghJ Copah;fspd; vz;zpf;fif 1575 jw;nghOJ CopaHfspd; vz;zpf;if 600. 1000 Fiwf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ehk; mt;thW Kd;khjphpahf jpfo;fpNwhk;.

mjdhy; vdJ md;ghd kf;fSf;F ehd; kpfTk; nfsutkhf njhptpg;gJ vd;dntd;why; NjHjypd;NghJ ehd; mspj;j thf;FWjpia mNj tpjkhf epiwNtw;Wtjw;F vd;id mHg;gzpj;Jf;nfhz;bUf;fpNwd;. mNjNghyj;jhd; CoYf;F> Nkhrbf;F> fsTf;F> tPz; tpuaj;jpw;F ehd; xUNghJk; ,lkspf;f khl;Nld;. mit njhlHghf eltbf;if vLf;Fk;NghJ ehd; Kd;dH Fwpg;gpl;lijg;Nghy mbikj; jisia ePf;Ftjw;F rl;lk; nfhz;L te;jNghJ rpy mbikfs; ,y;iy ehk; mbikfshf ,Ug;gJjhd; ey;yJ vd;W nrhd;ijg;Nghy ,e;j Coy; Nkhrbfis xopg;gjw;F chpa rl;l hPjpahd eltbf;ifia vLj;jNghJ rpyh; nghJ kf;fis jtwhf top elj;j Kay;fpd;wdh;. ehd; kf;fs; kPJ ek;gpf;if itj;jpUf;fpNwd;. kf;fs; rhpahdij njhpT nra;thh;fs; vd;gij ehd; mwpNtd;. ehl;bd; rl;lk; rPHFiya ,lkspf;f KbahJ. ehd; KbntLf;f Ntz;ba ,lj;jpy; KbntLg;Ngd;. Fwpg;ghf kf;fspd; Rje;jpuj;ijAk; rdehafj;ijAk; cWjpg;gLj;jp Coy;fisAk; NkhrbfisAk; ,e;ehl;bypUe;J xopg;gjw;fhf kf;fspd; chpikfis ghJfhg;gjw;fhf ehd; vLf;f Ntz;ba> vLf;ff;$ba midj;J eltbf;iffisAk; vLg;Ngd;. Jzpr;rYld; NjHjypy; Njhw;wpaJ capiuj; jpahfk; nra;Jjhd;. vd;Dila gps;isfspd; tho;f;ifNahL ehd; ngUq; flypy; gha;e;Js;Nsd;. ehd; ,d;Wk; mg;gbj;jhd;.

vdNt ehd; Kf;fpakhf Fwpg;gpl Ntz;ba xU tplak; cs;sJ. ey;y ehfhpfkhd rKjhak; xd;iw cUthf;Ftjw;F Rje;jpuj;ijAk; rdehafj;ijAk; cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;F rdthp 8Mk; jpfjp kf;fSf;F nfhLj;j thf;FWjpia epiwNtw;Wtjw;F ,it midj;jpw;Fk; ,d;W tho;fpd;w kf;fisg;Nghd;W ehis gpwf;f ,Uf;fpd;w gps;isfSf;fhfTk; ePq;fSk; ehq;fSk; rNfhjuj;Jtj;Jld; el;GwTld; vkJ jha; ehl;bd; md;ghd kf;fSf;fhf Kd; nry;Nthk;.
 


 

 

 
 
   
   
     
   
   

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